Fontes – affordable water for DRC remote areas

Through its local partner Fontes will provide water delivery services in DR Congo by taking over existing schemes to serve large communities living in rural and semi-urban areas. Fontes will add energy services as needed and develop the needed monitoring and payments systems. Fontes has been operating for over 10 years in Uganda and more recently in DR Congo.

More on the project here


SteriLux – medical sterilization devices for remote areas

The Steribox pictured below sterilizes medical instruments using 1000 times less water and 100 times less electricity compared to conventional sterilizers. Other assets are its ease of use, cheap  consumables and affordable price. Thus it meets well the needs of health centers and smaller hospitals located outside of main cities in developing and emerging countries. Steribox’ low running costs will allow to serve low income patients in particular.

More on the project here


ennosNicaragua & Honduras: sunlight pump for smallholders

ennos gmbh develops and distributes the sunlight pump, a portable solar water pump for irrigation and domestic water supply in developing countries. The technology combines income, productivity and labour-saving benefits. It will be made accessible in several countries through the establishment of a supply chain and affordable payment options.

More on the project here


Kenya: Water kiosks for villages


Rural populations in northern Kenya suffer from acute water scarcity because the environment they live in is semi-arid. Local infrastructure is limited and a pastoralist lifestyle prevails. Water scarcity, poor water quality and opportunity costs (time spent searching for and collecting water, nutritional loss, etc.) lead to frequent water borne diseases. The plan is to investigate and install twelve water treatment systems in the form of water kiosks in partnership with the villagers.

More on the project here

Swiss Intech

DR Congo: Swiss Intech for more efficient water supply

The project aims to develop the market in the DRC through a network of local partners (NGOs, companies, churches, well owners, farmers’ cooperatives and individuals) and demonstration projects. In the short term, the objective is to sell 200 pumps. In the long term, the market in the DRC is estimated at 10,000 pumps per year. The objectives are to reduce water usage and fuel consumption as well as to half the water supply price.

More on the project here

Joint evaluation: Sugarcane to Ethanol Project in Sierrra Leone

Sugarcane-to-Ethanol Project compliance with the Human Right to waterAddax Bioenergy, a division of the Swiss-based energy corporation Addax & Oryx Group (AOG) is developing an agricultural project in the Makeni region (Sierra Leone) to produce fuel ethanol for European markets. This project has been closely followed by the Swiss NGO Bread for all (Pain pour le prochain), EED and Bread for World, Germany, in conjun
ction with its local partners (Sierra Leone Network on the Right to Food, SiLNoRF). As an important agricultural project, one of the main risks associated is its impact on local population’s physical and affordable access to water in sufficient quality and quantity. The joint-research undertaken in collaboration with WaterLex provides a risk-analysis with regards the project’s impact on the population’s access to water, as well as an analysis of the project’s compliance with the human right to water.

Download the report here: Joint evaluation: Sugarcane to Ethanol Project in Sierrra Leone

Uganda Country Mapping: The Status of Implementation and Monitoring of the Human Right to Water and Sanitation

This WaterLex 2015 publication: Country Mapping: The Status of Implementation and Monitoring of the Human Right to Water and Sanitation in Uganda is available here to download.

Executive Summary

Access to safe water and sanitation is a human right, as recognized in 2010 by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). The Human Right to Water and Sanitation (HRWS) is inextricably linked with other human rights and therefore lack of access equally has a profound negative impact on many of the related human rights.

WaterLex Uganda Country Mapping: The Status of Implementation and Monitoring of the Human Right to Water and Sanitation in Uganda

WaterLex Country Mapping: The Status of Implementation and Monitoring of the Human Right to Water and Sanitation in Uganda – photo credit: Joyce Magala, Uganda

This one-year research was undertaken to establish the status of implementation and monitoring of the human right to water and sanitation in Uganda, in order to provide support for increased alignment of the legal framework, key sector policy frameworks, implementation and monitoring strategies, with the existing human rights commitments of the government.

This project was designed as a baseline study, using the WaterLex Country Mapping tool, which ultimately aims to identify gaps at the levels of: legal and policy framework through a structural analysis; planning and implementation of the public policies through a process analysis; and monitoring of public policies through an outcome analysis. As a result, a comprehensive multi-stakeholder analysis was undertaken through extensive desk reviews of the legal and policy frameworks; stakeholder mapping undertaken at the levels of law and policy-making, planning, implementation and monitoring; and evidence collected through field studies in the five sample districts – Kisoro, Nakapiripirit, Lira, Kamuli, and Amuru. These districts were selected through both random and purposeful sampling, using an agreed protocol defined and approved by the Project Steering Committee that was established and chaired by the Uganda Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE). Research findings were shared in a national stakeholder workshop during which an action plan for targeting the current unserved and underserved population of Uganda was defined to support the government’s efforts for securing universal access to safe water and sanitation.

In an extensive analytical and descriptive effort, this report of the Country Mapping is intended to contribute to the organizational setting and the current practices of MWE and the broader water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector and to engage a national dialogue on what should be the measures and indicators to adopt and apply at each of the three levels in order to ensure the integration of the HRWS.

Based on the varied levels of assessment, four key recommendations for promoting universal access to safe water and sanitation in Uganda have been advanced and detailed in the report’s Action Plan under Chapter 5 as follows:

  1. Enhanced Legal Framework: Consider legal options that will address gaps identified in the current legal framework for enhancing the enabling environment for HRWS compliance and delivery in Uganda;
  2. Harmonized National Standards: Revise current national water, sanitation and hygiene standards and the sector performance measurements to align with HRWS norms and service criteria and the SDG goals/targets;
  3. Baseline Analysis and Target Setting for HRWS Implementation: i) Establish a baseline with clear disaggregated data of the unserved areas and groups based on the specification of minimum core obligations with respect to substantive and procedural rights that apply nationally irrespective of rural/urban divide; and ii) Define a Targeted Strategy for Progressive Realization of Safe Water and Sanitation for all; and
  4. Accountability: Review the current Governance Framework to promote accountability and independent regulation to support enforcement of norms and standards that will accelerate universal access. Expedite the process of setting up the independent regulator.

It is anticipated that the Uganda MWE and the water, sanitation and environment sector partners will utilize the findings from this country mapping in further articulating the HRWS norms and standards in the planning, implementation and monitoring processes. This will be in line with the recent Joint Sector Review 2015 Undertaking Number 10 on Policy and Institutional Issues which commits to “review the sector performance monitoring framework to incorporate the water quality monitoring, good governance, the human right to water, climate change, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the National Development Plan II” (See, JSR, 2015 Agreed Minutes, page 20).

Given the scope of this study, further analyses may be required as well as support to MWE to deliver targeted trainings on the application of the various principles of the HRWS with a view to enhancing state and note actors’ capacities and to provide further information on the strengthening the sector monitoring framework for the progressive realization of HRWS in Uganda as the sector moves towards universal access.

Acknowledgements of support

Logo Uganda MWE 1

The authors wish to specifically thank the Uganda Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE) for collaborating in this project; the Project Steering Committee – Chaired by MWE – Eng. Ivan Birungi – for the leadership and Eng. Disan Ssozi for the overall support during the entire research period.

WaterLex expresses its gratitude to the Austrian Development Agency (ADA), the Danish Development Agency (DANIDA), the Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC) and the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) for their cooperation and financial assistance. However, this analysis and views expressed in this report are of WaterLex and implementation partners only and do not in any way, direct or indirect, reflect any agreement, endorsement or approval by any of the supporting organizations or their officials.

Logos Uganda Support 3a

 Project implementation

The project was implemented with the combined effort of WaterLex International Secretariat and the project research team from WaterAid, the National Association for Women’s Action in Development (NAWAD) and the local consultant engaged by the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).


Rose Osinde Alabaster – WaterLex and Lenka Kručková – WaterLex

With key contributions from:
Jean Willemin (WaterLex); Tobias Schmitz (WaterLex); Grace Alupo (WaterAid); Joyce Magala (WaterAid); Sylvia Bohibwa (NAWAD) and Khasifa Nantaba (SIWI).

The Authors are additionally grateful to Moez Allaoui, Spera Atuhairwe, Jean-Benoit Charrin, Moa Cortobius, Bonny Etti, Dickens Kamugisha, Ceaser Kimbugwe, Ariel Litke, David Snow, Lynn Sorrentino, Hannah Stoate, Florian Thevenon and Jan van de Venis for their contributions.

WaterLex is also very thankful to WaterAid Uganda Country Office and their staff for hosting the research team in their office during the research period and for facilitating the various processes for engagement with government and non-governmental partners.

The project partners would finally like to thank all government and non-government partners who were consulted during the research for all the valuable contribution provided. As we cannot list everyone here, by name a complete list of all the persons consulted has been annexed to this report.


Alabaster, R.A and Kruckova, L. Uganda Country Mapping: The Status of implementation and monitoring of the human right to water and sanitation. WaterLex, Geneva (2015), 208p.

Photo credits

Sylvia Bohibwa, Joyce Magala and Franz Hollhuber


Ivory Coast: quality drinking water for Addah Village

SONY DSCThe residents of Addah Village in rural Ivory Coast have been waiting for access to clean drinking water for many years. The project consists in the installation of a drinking water treatment plant NVAqua® with a capacity of 100m3/day to treat insalubrious water from a well. The drinking water produced is sold at affordable prices through village fountains and in ergonomic reusable jerry cans in the neighborhood. The project also includes the training of local technicians for maintenance and to create a local business for water sales.

More on the project here


Nepal: Rural Water Enterprise Development

Guneshwar MahatoIn the Nawalparasi district, about 79,000 people are at risk of drinking water that is contaminated with arsenic. Drinking such water over a long period is resulting in various health effects including skin problems, skin cancer, and cancer of the bladder, kidney and lung as well as other diseases. Through installing three solar-powered water purification units and the development of related water enterprises in a village community and in two hospitals in the district, the project will provide access to safe drinking water and income-generating opportunities for the local population. Besides contributing to the social and economic development and empowerment of these communities, the project also aims at demonstrating the viability and sustainability of the associated business models. This in turn should attract local investors for the development of additional safe water enterprises in Nepal.

More on the project here